The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field (Meridian: Crossing Aesthetics)
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The literary universe as we know it today took shape in the nineteenth century as a space set apart from the approved academies of the state. No one could any longer dictate what ought to be written or decree the canons of good taste. Recognition and consecration were produced in and through the struggle in which writers, critics, and publishers confronted one another.
Temps Modernes. The 'intellectual review', as the composition of the editorial board shows, gathers under Sartre's banner the living representatives of all the intellectual tra ditions integrated in the oeuvre and person of the founder, and allows the Sartrean project of thinking through all aspects of existence to be established in a collective programme ( 'we should miss nothing of our era,' as the 'editorial presentation' put it) and all intellectual production to be thus given an
anti�intellectualism, is the effect of a free intellectual choice. Being themselves, by their position and by their trajec tory, the site of opposed and contradictory political intentions, they may take a position on each political position-taking by starting from another position, reproaching the left for not having the rigour of the right, the right for lacking the generous intelligence of the left. By virtue of their propensity and their ability to vary the point of observation according to
scientifically and politically, in that 282 Foundations of a Science of Works of Art the more or less unexpected upheavals which are observed everywhere in the political world give disappointed intellectuals so often today a chance to express twice over, at the cost of a few apparent renunciations, the same repressive drives of resentment, the first time in the declared violence o f denunciation or 'revolutionary' repression, and the second time in the latent and irreproachable violence of
(48 per cent). 44 It is not by chance that the role of symbolic security incumbent on the art dealer is particularly visible in the domain of painting, where the 'economic' investment of the buyer (the collector) is incomparably more substantial than in the area of literature or even theatre. Raymonde Moulin observes that 'the contract signed with an important gallery has a commercial value' and that the dealer is, in the eyes of amateurs, the 'guarantor of the quality of the works' (R. Moulin,
essence what is a sort of 'theatrahty', hist�rica � quintessence, that is, the product of a long and slow work �f histoncal alchemy which accompanies the process of autonomiza tlOn of the fields of cultural production. Thus the long struggle of painters to break free of commissions (even. the most neutral and eclectic, that of state patronage) and to . subjects had revealed the possibility, and at the get nd of reqUIred . same tIme the necessity, of a cultural production free of any external