The Field of Cultural Production
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During the last two decades, sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has become a dominant force in cultural activity ranging from taste in music and art to choices in food and lifestyles.
The Field of Cultural Production brings together Bourdieu's major essays on art and literature and provides the first introduction to Bourdieu's writings and theory of a cultural field that situates artistic works within the social conditions of their production, circulation, and consumption.
Bourdieu develops a highly original approach to the study of literary and artistic works, addressing many of the key issues that have preoccupied literary art and cultural criticism in the last twentieth century: aesthetic value and canonicity, intertextuality, the institutional frameworks of cultural practice, the social role of intellectuals and artists, and structures of literary and artistic authority.
Bourdieu elaborates a theory of the cultural field which situates artistic works within the social conditions of their production, circulation, and consumption. He examines the individuals and institutions involved in making cultural products what they are: not only the writers and artists, but also the publishers, critics, dealers, galleries, and academies. He analyzes the structure of the cultural field itself as well as its position within the broader social structures of power.
The essays in his volume examine such diverse topics as Flaubert's point of view, Manet's aesthetic revolution, the historical creation of the pure gaze, and the relationship between art and power.
The Field of Cultural Porduction will be of interest to students and scholars from a wide range of disciplines: sociology and social theory, literature, art, and cultural studies.
moment. f works 0 f art 0 ffered to a gIven sOCIety at a gIven 2 . 2 . 1 . 1 Art competence can be provisionall y defined as the prelimin nowledge of the possible divisions into complementary classes of a 3ry k erse of representations. A mastery of this kind of system of u0 iv la ssification enables each element of the universe to be placed in a class essa rily determined in relation to another class, itself constituted by ec 0" the art representations consciously or unconsciously taken into
une economie des biens symboliques' in Actes de la recherche ell sciences sociales, 1 3 (February 1977), pp. 3-43. The abbreviated translation, by Richard Nice, previously appeared in Media, Clllillre and Society, 2/3 Uuly 1980), pp. 26 1 -93, and in Richard OIlI OS et al. (eds), Media, Cllltllre and Society: A Critical Reader London: Sage, 1986), pp. 1 3 1-63. Repnnted With kmd permission of Sage Publications Ltd . hapter 3 , 'The Market of Symbolic Goods' was originally published as e march.:
pro l ca liti po or c mi no eco d ate rel the in d an s in succes us, i of the bases for evaluating the producers and their products. Th str ct ans that application of the autonomous principle of hierarchization me ir degree the to ing ord acc d she gui tin dis be l wil ts duc pro and ers duc pro is evidence of success with the aud ience, which, it tends to be assumed, of their interest in the economic and political profits secured by success. The du ality of the principles of hierarchization
towards the functions commonly recogni zed as theirs by 'citarology'. It suffices to think of what might be termed an a minima reference, which consists in recognizing a precise and clearly specified debt (by the full-length quotation of a sentence or an expression) in otder to hide a far more global and more diffuse debt. (We should nore, in passing, the existence of a maxima references, whose functions may when the vary from grateful homage to self-valorizing annexation contribution of the
powerlessness? What if intellectual ambition were only the imaginary inversion of the failure of temporal ambitions? It is evident that Flaubert never ceased 10 ask himself whether the writer's scorn for the 'bourgeois' and the wordly possessions of which they are the prisoners does not owe somethlD� 10 the resentment of the failed 'bourgeois' who transforms his failure InlaOt elective renunciation; unless it is the 'bourgeois' who, by keeping hiJII a distance, enable the writer to distance