Hegel (The Routledge Philosophers)
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Hegel (1770-1831) is one of the major philosophers of the nineteenth century. Many of the major philosophical movements of the twentieth century - from existentialism to analytic philosophy - grew out of reactions against Hegel. He is also one of the hardest philosophers to understand and his complex ideas, though rewarding, are often misunderstood.
In this magisterial and lucid introduction, Frederick Beiser covers every major aspect of Hegel's thought. He places Hegel in the historical context of nineteenth-century Germany whilst clarifying the deep insights and originality of Hegel's philosophy.
A masterpiece of clarity and scholarship, Hegel is both the ideal starting point for those coming to Hegel for the first time and essential reading for any student or scholar of nineteenth century philosophy.
- chapter summaries
- annotated further reading.
unduly lengthened an already long introduction. For this reason, an earlier chapter on Hegel’s reaction to the Grundsatzkritik and meta-critical campaign of the 1790s was dropped. This book is the product of three decades of reﬂection on Hegel and his contemporaries. I ﬁrst began to study Hegel in the early 1970s at Oxford, the dawn of the Hegel renaissance in the Anglophone world. My study of Hegel ﬁrst came from an interest in the intellectual sources of Marxism, but gradually evolved into a
Walter Cerf and H.S. Harris (Albany: SUNY Press, 1977). Gesammelte Werke, ed. Rheinisch–Westfälischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Hamburg: Meiner, 1989 et seq.). Philosophie des Rechts. Die Vorlesung von 1819/20 in einer Nachschrift, ed. Dieter Henrich (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1983). Cited by page number. Hegels theologische Jugendschriften, ed. Herman Nohl (Tübingen: Mohr, 1907). Die Positivität der christlichen Religion (1795/1796), in Werke I, 190–229. The Positivity of the Christian Religion,
self-consciousness, exists perfectly only in love. What he means is that in love the self (the subject) ﬁnds itself in the other (the object) as the other ﬁnds itself in the self. In the experience of love subject and object, self and other, realize their natures through one another, and moreover each of them recognizes itself only through the other. Hence there is subject–object identity because there is a single structure of self-consciousness holding between self and other: the self knows
whole (§14R). The representations of religion are negated in their immediacy – their claims to be self-suﬃcient or independent – but they are preserved in their essential content as parts of the whole. The main point to see here is that Hegel understands representation as an implicit form of thinking. It is striking that when he ﬁrst deﬁnes representation he refers to Kant’s principle of the unity of apperception, according to which a representation is mine only if it is possible for me to be
sermons and several short fragments.16 Of these fragments the largest and most important is the so-called Tübingen Essay, the fragment ‘Religion ist eine der wichtigsten Angelegenheiten . . .’.17 This fragment sets the agenda for much of Hegel’s early development. True to his republican politics, Hegel’s main concern is to outline a civic religion. In the republican tradition of Machiavelli, Montesquieu and Rousseau, Hegel believed that the chief source of republican virtue and patriotism came